A Guide to Endurance Training Methods Previously, I have written about the three primary predictors of overall endurance performance which were VO2 max, functional threshold, and efficiency. People who are not athletes may utilize endurance training as a method to get fit. Endurance training is a combination of different training methods. And I wanted to do that by showing what being helpful is. To whit, I’ve redone that stupid “Eating like an Asshole” thing …, Which is why I said at the outset that the crazy person who sends me the ranty emails is both right and wrong. Basic endurance trains your cardiac output and heart muscle. Now, as is always the case, there are a whole bunch of them. It can be characterized as a combination of various types of endurance you need to maximize your ability to succeed in your discipline. Athletes in the 400m do at least some amount of aerobic work during their training and it may make up 50% of the total training volume for an 800m runner. Endurance training is the act of exercising to increase endurance. The rest intervals in the training programme are missing. Basic endurance. In contrast, athletes who need some degree or type of endurance as part of their overall performance won’t need nearly the development in those terms. This method is sometimes called speed play. Today I want to mainly make some introductory comments, looking briefly at some of the major adaptations that occur in response to endurance training. No single method will be sufficient. fatty acids and glycogen), and free radical production are all turning out to play a role in the stimulus that occurs from endurance training. It’s certainly not the cause of fatigue during high intensity activities (some research suggests that lactate helps to buffer against fatigue). A speed based runner may do a bit more endurance work while an endurance based runner may do a bit more speed work. Those mixed sports athletes are simply having to balance out the mixture of metabolic requirements of strength, power, endurance, etc. It is widely believed that having a high VO2max is important for success in endurance sports. Endurance training is essential for basketball players looking to maintain stamina throughout an entire game as well as the entire season. They can’t even imagine a third option. the start in rowing requires a good deal of strength to overcome inertia). Long, Slow Distance Training (LSD) FREQUENCY: 1-2 x week; INTENSITY: 70% VO 2 max or 80% HRmax Allow for conversation when exercising; DURATION: Longer than race pace (30 min – 2 hrs) Depends on level of the athlete; PROBLEM: Recruitment pattern of muscle not specific to race (i.e. This also explains why training has to progress in either intensity, duration or both depending on what’s trying to be achieved. For the pure endurance athlete, developing things like VO2 max, Lactate threshold and efficiency to the absolute maximum levels is going to be more or less the be-all, end-all of their training goals and this determines how they train. Also, since it gives some important background to understanding why different methods of endurance training work, I’m going to have to bore people with a bit of molecular physiology regarding something called AMPk. .There are a number of adaptations that occur with regular endurance training that work to improve performance. what the molecular stimulus actually is). Relevant to this article, AMPk activation is a big part of what stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis (that is, the creation of new mitochondria). Previously, I have written about the three primary predictors of overall endurance performance which were VO2 max, functional threshold, and efficiency. Endurance training results in a number of profound physiological and metabolic adaptations which function to reduce the degree of perturbations to homeostasis for a given exercise intensity and ultimately, delay the onset of fatigue. It’s often used interchangeably with terms like “aerobic”, “anaerobic”, “strength” and “speed”. He’s right in the sense that calories are not a physically existing object. Muscular endurance training methods will improve the stamina of your muscles. 0 Shares Share on … These methods include continous method and method of alternating intensity. And that’s that pure endurance athletes are a different animal with different goals and needs than other athletes who simply need some amount of endurance as part of their overall performance package. Competition and time trials can be used in the development of speed endurance. Performing low-load, high repetition exercises is the best way to do this. This shift in the ATP/AMP ratio is what turns on AMPk. Endurance, VO2 max, efficiency, lactate threshold, acid buffering can all be ‘targeted’ with specific combinations of intensity, duration and frequency. So training has to increase in some form or fashion. The more oxygen you take in, the... Interval Method. When time is limited, a schedule-friendly method called polarized training presents a practical way to build endurance on a time budget. Situps. Quality Over Quantity. This is critically important to endurance performance (and, as it turns out, “anaerobic” performance) because mitochondria are where oxygen is processed. Strength Training For Endurance However, one of the primary effectors of adaptation is something called AMPk (which stands for adenosine monophosphate kinase). A workout of 30 minutes (for beginners) will get you going and can comfortably reach 2 hours (for more experienced runners). Muscular Endurance Training | Livestrong.com The interval method serves a similar purpose, but also benefits stamina, speed endurance and lactic... Repetition Method. Basically the cell “senses” that its energy levels have been disrupted so it turns on other stuff to try and combat that. Make an Impact. As mentioned above, your endurance training is always a combination of different training methods. This method is generally used once in a week in advanced training programme. They simply aren’t used to nearly the same extent or degree since they don’t make up the entirety of the performance structure. However, even at lower intensities, long enough durations of training can still stimulate AMPk and adaptations to training. Repetition methods are used with a high number of sets, a low number of repetitions per set and intensity greater than 85% with distances covered from 60% to 120% of the racing distance. Try upper- and lower-body exercises on machines or using your own bodyweight. And AMPk activation is a big part of “what happens”. This training method alternates between low intensity exercise methods and high intensity exercise methods. Read Endurance Training Method 1: Miles Build Champions, I mentioned in Part 2 that all FFM is not skeletal muscle. The term endurance training generally refers to training the aerobic system as opposed to the anaerobic system. Here’s how. Many readers may have been exposed to the idea of lactic acid/lactate and its previous held role in terms of causing fatigue. Fartlek training combines some or all of the above aerobic endurance training techniques. At some point in the future I’m going to look at specificity vs. variety and discuss this in more detail. Aerobic endurance is certainly part of the overall package but it’s not the be-all, end-all of performance. This explains a whole bunch of other things (such as why doing a lot of endurance training after you lift is a bad idea) which I’m not going to get into in this article. Training for better muscular endurance involves improving the performance of your slow-twitch muscle fibers. The idea behind this method is to perform intermittent hangs until failure, with the load reduced to only 30 – 40% of your maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). But beyond the 200m (sub 20 seconds), all runners will do at least some aerobic work. So what, you ask, turns on AMPk? Not only is it a logical fallacy to exclude the middle, it ignores how real-world athletes actually train. It’s worth mentioning that AMPk activation also inhibits protein synthesis by inhibiting another molecular sensor called mTOR. With the endurance method you can improve your maximum oxygen intake. We have listed below the main types of endurance with short descriptions of their nature. But people love to play a game of excluding the middle with stuff like this: either an athlete is running 120 miles per week or NEVER doing aerobic steady state work. Strength endurance training is recommended over a period of four to eight weeks. This means that when you run, for example, you would still be able to talk with your fellow runner. It is a continuous workout without any break. Improving Muscular Strength and Endurance There are many ways to improve muscular strength and endurance. Share on Pinterest. And the answer is that they wouldn’t, or at least not to that extreme. Continuous method means load with constant level of intensity or speed. But that doesn’t mean that you throw out the baby with the bathwater and NEVER do continuous aerobic work or apply the methodologies used to improve endurance to those sports. You’re probably not doing these seven training techniques—but once you do, you’ll significantly boost your endurance and stamina. Since it will provide background to better understand why different methods of endurance training “work”, I will also delve into bit of molecular physiology regarding something called AMPk. In humans, it is usually used in the aerobic or anaerobic exercise. Endurance Method. to fix weak points that are limiting current performance). Interval training has become very popular as a time-efficient training strategy for aerobic endurance athletes. Mind you this can depend on the athlete’s strengths and weaknesses. When you start exercising, the body can’t make ATP quickly enough and you get an increase in something called ADP (adenosine diphosphate, it’s just ATP with a phosphate stripped off of it). Endurance Repeaters are a less known modification of the standard 7/3 Hangboard Repeaters protocol. Fartlek training is another track and field training method use by the endurance fraternity to improve aerobic fitness and VO2 max. For example, when AMPk is activated, the muscle will burn more fat for fuel, it will take up glucose from the blood stream, it will become more insulin sensitive. This section of the website focuses primarily on aerobic endurance conditioning and the various training methods that have been developed to help athletes reach peak aerobic fitness. Interval training involves intensities at or above VO2max, typically lasting between 30 seconds and 5 minutes (10). At a fundamental level, an improvement in “endurance” means that the body has improved its ability to maintain ATP levels during exercise. And when you activate AMPk along with doing a bunch of other stuff you get an adaptation. Continuous method: The physical exertion is continuous. My point being that the methods used by the pure endurance athletes can still have some application to the non-pure endurance athletes. A long slow run/cycle (at about 70% VO2max) form the foundation of the session and is combined with short bursts of higher intensity work. For an aerobic endurance athlete, the rest times between intervals are typically equal to or less than the work time itself, which keeps the work-to-rest ratio at 1:1 or 2:1. I should make a quick comment about #6 since it’s phrased a bit oddly. No single intensity or endurance training method can possibly stimulate or optimize all possible adaptations. So in this series I want to look at various methods of endurance training as they are commonly recommended or used by athletes to optimize and maximize performance. Improving mitochondrial function and building a bigger aerobic engine overall ends up impacting on performance in two ways: This explains why seemingly “anaerobic” sports end up doing a fair amount of basic endurance work. It’s just not the primary goal. Extensive, moderate intensity methods may be used to generate hypertrophy which provides a base for increased strength gains through higher intensity “neural” training; heavy slow training may be combined with lighter speed/power work to generate still other adaptations. I mention this because you’ll often see these truly silly arguments along the lines of “Look at marathon runners, they are small and weak, why would a [insert non-running athlete here] every do steady state cardio like that?”. Mitochondria proliferate, aerobic enzymes increase and endurance improves. Training methods for endurance development . Continuous (or Cardio) Training Cardio training is a great way to improve your aerobic muscular endurance. The primary benefit of int… Here are some of the best training methods for muscular endurance. for their sport. 10 Different Ways to Do a Biceps Curl Read article Simply put, the bigger your aerobic engine, the better your ‘anaerobic’ performance. While this may seem unnecessary detailed, it actually provides a basis for some of the different types of training I want to talk about. When engaging in an in endurance sport, don’t fall into the trap that more is … Calcium levels in the skeletal muscle, fuel utilization (e.g. But he’s wrong in …. Before getting into the methods, I want to make a point that I think some folks tend to miss or confuse. ADP is further metabolized to AMP (adenosine monophosphate which is ATP with both phosphates stripped off of it). I’d mention in that context that AMPk can be activated by a number of different types of stimuli and this has relevance for the different successful methods of endurance training that have been used over the years. Training VO2max is especially important for those who run the 1,500-meter/mile and 3,000-meter races. Hence the need for endurance athletes to use multiple methods of endurance training to optimize performance. Training is organized so that the training distance, say 5 miles, is completed with short burst of steady state running mixed with varying higher and lower tempo runs. While each is important on its own, it is the interaction of all three (along with factor such as pacing, tactics, etc) that determine actual real-world performance. In contrast, sprint training has a greater effect on muscle glyco … As is so often the case, things are turning out to be far more complicated and lactate/lactic acid per se appear to be, if anything, beneficial. Endurance training which is designed to improve stamina, endurance, and overall performance. It’s turning out that mitochondria can metabolize the acid. Or, in other words, when you are under maximum strain, you want to recover quicker from that strain. Practically speaking, endurance athletes use a variety of training zones (of varying intensity and duration combinations) to achieve different sets of adaptations as required by the specifics of their sport and their individual needs (e.g. Although a high VO2max alone is not enough to attain elite-level performances, it gains one access into the club. Try upper- and lower-body exercises on machines or using your own bodyweight. While VO2max is largely genetically determined, training can improve it between 5 and 20 percent, depending on initial fitness le… Because where the marathoner might need a 2.5 hour run once/week and 120 miles per week total to perform optimally, a non-marathon athlete who needs endurance might only be doing 30 minutes of continuous running/aerobic work a few times per week to develop some basic endurance or what have you. And with that out of the way, let me look at the first and arguably most common method of developing endurance which is the Miles Build Champions method. This is based on research showing that this amount of protein maximizes …, Although I have other pieces ready, I wanted to follow up my Dumb Shit Professionals Say #1. Below I’ve reproduced what I call the adaptation continuum, showing the primary adaptations that certain sports require. However, and somewhat confusingly, it does look like acid (specifically H+) is a cause of fatigue. Speed endurance is used to develop the coordination of muscle contraction. Optimally activating AMPk in different muscle fibers may also require different combinations of intensity and duration. By the time you get to the 800m, it’s even more significant. This method of running training helps the body to slowly build up endurance and become strong enough to run races. The need for endurance in sports is often predicated as the need of cardiovascular and simple muscular endurance, but the issue of endurance is far more complex. At the mile mark and above, the primary energy system being used is the aerobic system. Strength per se is rarely a massive determinant of overall performance although this depends on the sport (e.g. If you think about what’s happening, this should make sense. With the endurance method you can improve your maximum oxygen intake. "walking fast" at a steady pace or a certain work rate (as illustrated 70 % Wmax on a cycle ergometer. Endurance training is quite a broad sweeping term. Interval training is a method that helps you increase your sports performance via endurance training, speed and agility. There are different training methods in endurance training. Basically, AMPk is activated when the energy status of the cell is disrupted. Specific endurance It is the ability to stand against fatigue in sport specific conditions. You also see a much more moderate level of strength compared to pure strength/power athletes. It is rumored but unproven that …, For nearly a century now, we thought we knew what the essential fatty acids were, linolenic acid and alpha-linoleic acid. In no particular order these include (but are probably not limited to): Now, something to keep in mind is that the above adaptations tend to not only occur at different rates (in terms of how long training needs to be carried out to generate/maximize them) but tend to be affected to a greater or lesser degree depending on the type of training that is done. In previously untrained individuals, endurance training improves peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), increases capillary density of working muscle, raises blood volume and decreases heart rate during exercise at the same absolute intensity. Both depending on the athlete ’ s strengths and weaknesses that having a high alone. 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